英文編修, 論文校對, 論文修改, 論文翻譯, 期刊發表, 摘要翻譯
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Eddy博士將解釋國際期刊出版的基本知識,與您分享他作為一名研究員多年來積累的經驗。他會不定期撰寫有關期刊出版的重要內容。請閱讀Eddy博士分享如何成功發表論文的技巧。


論文撰寫
期刊論文架構:如何透過文章清楚表達您的想法

撰寫投稿論文的目的不只是陳述研究成果以及想法,更重要的是與讀者交流—那表示您應該清楚地傳達您的研究,幫助讀者瞭解近期相關的研究議題。這篇文章介紹投稿論文的架構並說明每個段落應該包含的內容和不應該存在的內容,幫助您撰寫架構完整且陳述清楚有條理的期刊投稿論文(期刊投稿論文以下簡稱為論文)。

一篇優良論文的原則

撰寫文章時要特別意識到讀者不僅僅是單純地閱讀,他們同時也會對文章內容進行解讀 。不同讀者對您的論文會有不同預設,依據他們的預設可能會對您的論文有不同的解讀。因此,我們可以反向推論出一個論文寫作時的重要原則1

research paper ideas

論文架構:基本要素

大多數研究論文的結構都採用漏斗形式2。由廣泛陳述逐漸深入研究重點,最後概括總結。本文將介紹論文的組成要素和概述每個部分的作用和內容。2-6

manuscript structure

引言(研究對象和目的)

在引言這個段落介紹您的研究脈絡和研究問題。撰寫時需留意部分讀者可能沒有辦法很快地理解您研究的重要性,因此請使用通俗易懂的語言和清晰的邏輯引導讀者瞭解研究主題和研究目的。

DO and DON’T

  • 說明研究動機。
  • 闡述研究價值和貢獻。
  • 清楚描述研究問題。
  • 說明研究理論基礎。
  • 探討相關研究並引用其他研究支持您的論點。
  • 總結研究主題的研究現況。
  • 不要把文獻回顧放在引言裡。

研究方法(您如何執行?)

此部分是研究的主幹,一個優質研究必須具有可重複性,亦即其他研究人員能按照您論文所描述的研究方法獲得相同的研究結果。

DO and DON’T

  • 提供詳細的研究資料包含:研究方法、操作技術和實驗儀器。
  • 包括實驗裝置的圖片或示意圖。
  • 介紹問卷、調查或資料蒐集的方法。
  • 提供或引用具有信度和效度的分析方法或分析儀器。
  • 介紹實驗室條件或環境。
  • 解釋說明分析方法及選擇的原因。
  • 不能為了避免冗長的描述而省略重要細節。

研究結果(您的研究發現)

此段落應包括詳細的研究資料、數據和結果,強調研究的主要成果,然後再說明次要成果。請以簡潔清晰的方式撰寫,讓讀者能在短時間之內就了解您的研究成果。

DO and DON’T

  • 多使用圖表呈現研究結果,有助於讀者理解。
  • 提供實際研究資料或數據,而不僅是概略陳述。
  • 陳述主要研究成果。
  • 闡述研究的意外發現(如果有的話)
  • 說明研究發現的意義,不能僅僅描述數據。例如:「X和Y有.73的正相關」比「X隨著Y增加呈現大幅的增加」更為清楚易懂。
  • 如果您已在表格和圖表中說明研究結果,就不需要再以文字重複詳細說明。

研究討論(研究結果的意義)

良好的研究討論可以延伸研究成果並擴大研究影響力,而這些討論應該和引言內容相互呼應,因此,請務必重複確認引言和討論之間的關係。

DO and DON’T

  • 開頭闡述您的假設是否得到證實。
  • 闡述研究結果:得到的研究結果意義是什麼?
  • 將研究結果與前人的研究結果做連結。例如:您的研究結果是否證實或偏離前人的研究結果。
  • 解釋您的研究如何增進原有的知識。
  • 務必提及關於研究結果可能存在的其他解釋。
  • 闡述研究的侷限性。
  • 不要一昧重複敘述研究結果。
  • 不能推導出無數據支持的結論。

結論(您的研究收獲)

在此段落闡述研究結論,當讀者閱讀到此處時應該已能掌握您的研究脈略瞭解您得出結論的過程和理由。

DO and DON’T

  • 說明您的研究收獲。
  • 研究結論應與研究問題和研究目的直接相關。
  • 詳述研究與延伸意涵。
  • 建議未來研究方向,例如:加強您的研究成果或解決目前中尚未解決的問題。
  • 切勿誇大或以偏概全,亦即將研究成果過度解釋到其他未經證實的範圍。
  • 請勿純粹總結研究結果,應予以解釋說明。

為不同知識背景的讀者撰寫論文

  • 優秀的作者寫作時能意識到讀者可能來自不同知識背景,從而調整論文架構和措辭讓讀者能瞭解您所表達的內容,務必使未經學術訓練的一般社會大眾也能瞭解您的研究。2
  • 避免專業術語。清楚定義關鍵術語,特別是使用頻率不高或讀者會感陌生的術語。
  • 如果只有該領域的專家才能讀懂您的論文,那麼您的論文將難以被廣泛閱讀。此外,應帶領讀者瞭解您的研究問題和方法,不能假設讀者瞭解您所有的研究細節。
結論
優秀的作者總是能以讀者為中心來撰寫論文。良好的論文架構可幫助您清楚地表達想法,讀者也能在文章的各個段落瞭解您闡述的重點。

Contributors
Manuscript structure: How to convey your most important ideas through your paper

The core purpose of writing a paper is to go beyond mere presentation of facts and thoughts. It is to reach out to the reader—to communicate your research effectively and help readers understand the issues at hand.

This article introduces and illustrates various concepts for structuring a manuscript such that readers take away the most important messages—the messages you want to convey—after reading your paper.

The philosophy behind good manuscript structure

A crucial point to remember while writing a paper is that readers do not simply read; they interpret.1 Different readers are likely to extract different meanings from your paper, depending on their expectations or the clues they receive from the manuscript's structure. This brings us to a concept that serves as the foundation of good writing practices1:

research paper ideas

Manuscript structure: The essential elements

A fitting analogy to the structure of most research manuscripts would be an hourglass.2 The manuscript begins with broad statements, narrows down to the specifics of your study, and ends with broad considerations. This section presents the basic components of a manuscript and outlines the essential functions and content of each part.2-6

manuscript structure

Introduction (What are you studying and why?)

Use this section to set the context for your study and problem. Remember that several readers may not understand the significance of your study right away. Therefore, use general language and carefully developed logic to guide your readers to the main problem/objective of your study.

DOs and DON'Ts

  • Describe the rationale for undertaking the study
  • Explain how the research makes an important contribution to the field or advances knowledge
  • State the research question clearly
  • Explain the theoretical framework that the study is based on
  • Provide a background of the problem or issue that your research aims to understand or resolve, citing studies to support your arguments
  • Summarize the current state of knowledge on the topic, citing studies as appropriate
  • Don't review all studies that have ever been published on the topic

Methods (What did you do?)

This section is the most specific to your study. A primary criterion for well-conducted research is that it must be replicable. This means that another researcher should be able to reproduce the results by following the methods detailed in your paper.

DOs and DON'Ts

  • Provide full details of all methods, techniques, and instruments
  • Include photograph or diagram of the experimental setup
  • Describe the questionnaire, survey, or other data collection instruments
  • Provide or cite studies that support the validity and reliability of the analysis methods and instruments
  • Describe the lab settings or environment
  • Explain the analysis methods and why you chose them
  • Don’t exclude important details simply to avoid a lengthy description of the methods

Results (What did you find?)

  • Use tables and figures effectively to present results in a manner that’s easy to understand at a glance
  • Describe the actual data rather than provide generalizations
  • State the main findings in the text
  • Highlight any unexpected or surprising results in the text
  • Explain what the results are saying, rather them simply stating the statistical data (e.g., “X was found to substantially increase with Y [followed by statistical data]” rather than “X and Y had a positive correlation of .73”)
  • If you have illustrated the results of your study in figures and tables, do not include detailed descriptions of these results in the text

Discussion (What do your findings mean?)

A good discussion section extends the specific results to their broader implications, which can then be tied in with the general background given in the introduction to maximize the impact of the overall paper. Therefore, remember to go “back and forth” between your discussion section and the introduction.

DOs and DON’Ts

  • Start by stating whether your hypothesis was supported
  • Interpret the results: what do the results imply?
  • Relate your findings to those of previous studies, for example, whether your results support or deviate from results in previous studies
  • Explain how the study adds to previous knowledge
  • Remember to mention any possible alternative explanations for the results
  • Address the limitations of the study
  • Don’t simply repeat the results again
  • Don’t draw conclusions that are not supported by the data

Conclusion (What have you learned from the study?)

In this section, state the main conclusions of the study in the context of the formulated problem. By the time readers reach this part of the text, they should have understood what you did and the outcomes of the research. Readers should be able to understand how and why you reached your conclusions

DOs and DON’Ts

  • Explain what you’ve learned from the study
  • Ensure that the conclusion is directly related to your research question and stated purpose of the study
  • Elaborate on the broader implications of the research
  • Suggest specific future avenues of research to advance the knowledge you’ve gained from the study or answer questions that your study did not address
  • Don’t oversell your research or “overgeneralize” the results, that is, stretch the study findings to provide suggestions or conclusions that the research doesn’t really support
  • Don’t simply summarize the results


No explanation: We investigate the role of reduced monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) activity in smoker behavior.

Better: The enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) is involved in the breakdown of dopamine, a neurotransmitter implicated in reinforcing and motivating addictive behaviours such as smoking. MAO B inhibition is associated with enhanced activity of dopamine. We investigate the role of reduced MAO B activity in smoker behavior.
Writing for different groups of readers

  • A good writer is aware of what different types of readers may be expecting from the paper and can structure a paper according to the readers’ expectations and backgrounds. Even a general reader with little or no knowledge of the field should be able to get a broad understanding of what you did and why.2
  • Avoid jargon. Clearly define key terms, especially ones that are not used in their conventional sense or ones that few readers can be expected to be familiar with.
  • If only specialists in your field can understand what you’re saying, your paper will not be read by a wide audience. Lead readers up to the problem or theory you are studying. Don’t assume that readers know everything about the topic of your research.

Conclusion
To be an effective author, keep the reader in mind while writing your paper. A well-structured manuscript helps you enhance the flow of your ideas and tells readers what to expect at different parts of the manuscript.
Results (What did you find?)

Include all the details of your data and results in this section. Highlight the most significant findings in the text and then move on to the peripheral findings. Readers should be able to understand your results without spending too much time reading this section.

DOs and DON*Ts

  • Use tables and figures effectively to present results in a manner that*s easy to understand at a glance
  • Describe the actual data rather than provide generalizations
  • State the main findings in the text
  • Highlight any unexpected or surprising results in the text
  • Explain what the results are saying, rather them simply stating the statistical data (e.g., ※X was found to substantially increase with Y [followed by statistical data]§ rather than ※X and Y had a positive correlation of .73§)
  • If you have illustrated the results of your study in figures and tables, do not include detailed descriptions of these results in the text

Discussion (What do your findings mean?)

A good discussion section extends the specific results to their broader implications, which can then be tied in with the general background given in the introduction to maximize the impact of the overall paper. Therefore, remember to go ※back and forth§ between your discussion section and the introduction.

DOs and DON*Ts

  • Start by stating whether your hypothesis was supported
  • Interpret the results: what do the results imply?
  • Relate your findings to those of previous studies, for example, whether your results support or deviate from results in previous studies
  • Explain how the study adds to previous knowledge
  • Remember to mention any possible alternative explanations for the results
  • Address the limitations of the study
  • Don*t simply repeat the results again
  • Don*t draw conclusions that are not supported by the data

Conclusion (What have you learned from the study?)

In this section, state the main conclusions of the study in the context of the formulated problem. By the time readers reach this part of the text, they should have understood what you did and the outcomes of the research. Readers should be able to understand how and why you reached your conclusions.

DOs and DON*Ts

  • Explain what you*ve learned from the study
  • Ensure that the conclusion is directly related to your research question and stated purpose of the study
  • Elaborate on the broader implications of the research
  • Suggest specific future avenues of research to advance the knowledge you*ve gained from the study or answer questions that your study did not address
  • Don*t oversell your research or ※overgeneralize§ the results, that is, stretch the study findings to provide suggestions or conclusions that the research doesn*t really support
  • Don*t simply summarize the results

No explanation: We investigate the role of reduced monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) activity in smoker behavior.

Better: The enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) is involved in the breakdown of dopamine, a neurotransmitter implicated in reinforcing and motivating addictive behaviours such as smoking. MAO B inhibition is associated with enhanced activity of dopamine. We investigate the role of reduced MAO B activity in smoker behavior.
Writing for different groups of readers

A good writer is aware of what different types of readers may be expecting from the paper and can structure a paper according to the readers* expectations and backgrounds. Even a general reader with little or no knowledge of the field should be able to get a broad understanding of what you did and why.2

Avoid jargon. Clearly define key terms, especially ones that are not used in their conventional sense or ones that few readers can be expected to be familiar with.

If only specialists in your field can understand what you*re saying, your paper will not be read by a wide audience. Lead readers up to the problem or theory you are studying. Don*t assume that readers know everything about the topic of your research.

Conclusion
To be an effective author, keep the reader in mind while writing your paper. A well-structured manuscript helps you enhance the flow of your ideas and tells readers what to expect at different parts of the manuscript.
  1. G Gopen, J Swan The Science of Scientific Writing., American Scientist, 78, pp. 550-558

  2. DJ Bern Writing the Empirical Journal Article., in The Compleat Academic: A Practical Guide for the Beginning Social Scientist, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., New Jersey, USA

  3. Characteristics of a High Quality Manuscript. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, available online at http://www.nctm.org/publications/content.aspx?id=17149

  4. J Samet. Dear Author—Advice from a Retiring Editor., American Journal of Epidemiology, 150, 433-436

  5. D Byrne. Common reasons for rejecting manuscripts at medical journals., Science Editor, 23, pp. 39-44

  6. Characteristics of a High Quality Manuscript (for mathematics ). Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. (n.d.).

Contributors