英文編修, 論文校對, 論文修改, 論文翻譯, 期刊發表, 摘要翻譯
意得輯觀點Editage Insights - Tips for effective literature searching and keeping up with new publications
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Eddy博士將解釋國際期刊出版的基本知識,與您分享他作為一名研究員多年來積累的經驗。他會不定期撰寫有關期刊出版的重要內容。請閱讀Eddy博士分享如何成功發表論文的技巧。


發表計畫
有效搜尋文獻及更新出版資訊的技巧

研究論文的發表量呈現爆炸性成長,任何人都無法排除正在進行的論文主題在近期期刊中發表的可能性。


有效搜尋文獻優點

  • 防止重複他人已完成的工作。
  • 透過整合以前研究資訊,為自己的研究提供更有力的背景、證據和論點。
  • 相關研究可提供有價值的觀點和技巧來改進自己的研究,例如使用最好的研究方法或數據分析方法。
  • 可找到原有研究的漏洞和缺點,幫助想出有用、有意義的研究問題。
  • 透過使用和尋找適合的關鍵字,幫助您熟悉本領域的專業術語。
期刊最常見被退稿原因之一是研究與過去曾發表的論文重覆。了解自己學科領域發表論文的最新消息,並有組織的使用搜尋策略可以確保自己不漏掉相似的論文是非常重要的。


查找文獻的基本檢索方法

確定關鍵字

使用目標關鍵字非常重要。將研究主題分成數個主要概念,然後確定每個觀點的關鍵字,接著,寫下各關鍵字的同義詞和替代詞。此外,使用您準備在論文中使用的術語,這可指出這些術語與您學科領域的相關性或您是否應使用更精準的術語來表達您的觀點。
確定關鍵字的檢查表

  • 我探討的主題裡還有什麼其他的替代詞?
  • 在拼字和用字上,是否有美式與英式英語的差別?
  • 我能辨識斷詞的詞幹嗎?例如:由child$找到child、children或childish。
  • 縮寫、簡稱或公式是否為常用習慣?
  • 我對什麼特定案例或實例感興趣?
  • 還有哪些通用術語可以包括在我的主題裡?
  • 有我想要排除的類別嗎?

資料來源:里茲大學圖書館文獻搜尋計畫


開始檢索
您可能需要搜尋多個學術資料庫來確保涵蓋了所有的論文,由於各個資料庫數據來源及確定索引期刊文章的過程不同,因此,若您只專注在一個資料庫,您可能會遺漏相關文章。例如:如果您只專注於Elsevier’s Science Direct資料庫,則您非常有可能漏掉相關的發表文章。因為此資料庫主要是索引愛思維爾Elsevier出版的期刊。

檢索來源

書目/一般資料庫
例如:Scopus、ISI Web of Knowledge、Google Scholar、EMBASE、JSTOR、ProQuest

用於
  • 瀏覽熱門、高品質文章
  • 開始檢索過程及搜尋原始論文
出版社資料庫和期刊網站
例如:Elsevier’s ScienceDirect、SpringerLink、Wiley Online Library、牛津期刊資料庫

用於
  • 瀏覽經常出版與您研究主題相關的期刊
  • 瀏覽您專業領域的期刊
學科專題資料庫
例如:Medline、PsychINFO、MathSciNet、EconLit、INSPEC


用於
  • 尋找特定學科的論文
  • 進行特定主題的深入研究
  • 搜尋冷門或完全新的主題


跟隨引用

一旦您找到一些相關的期刊論文,找更多研究的一個簡單方法就是查看這些論文的參考文獻〈反向搜尋〉。這些參考研究文獻很可能也與您相關。此外,找引用這些文章的論文可以幫助您找到以這些文章為基礎的更新研究論文。

書面保存檢索紀錄

記下搜尋時經常看到的期刊名稱,您會逐漸熟悉領域內最有影響力以及您應考慮發表論文的期刊。此外,應保存最好搜尋結果的關鍵字和關鍵字組合表,這不只會減少未來搜尋的時間,而且還可得到您學科領域的常用術語。

使用文獻管理工具

您可能需要篩選和追蹤大量的研究文獻,因此人工編輯文獻已經行不通了。應使用文獻管理工具如Endnote(需要購買)或Zotero(免費),利用這些工具,只需點擊滑鼠,即可從期刊網站下載論文並儲存到電腦資料庫中。文獻管理工具還可幫助您輕鬆組織資料庫及編輯文獻表單。雖然剛開始操作這些流程時有點困難,但透過使用手冊和錄影教學反覆學習,不出幾天您就可以駕輕就熟了。

隨時更新文獻

大量的資料庫和出版社提供以下一種或多種提醒工具─目錄(TOC)提醒、引述提醒和關鍵詞提醒。這些提醒可有效幫助您與新發表論文保持同步。透過多種提醒服務,您會收到電子郵件提醒,電子郵件將列出新發表論文的標題和作者,有時甚至包括摘要。

如何透過提醒功能與新發表論文保持同步
  • 檢索中經常出現的期刊
  • 專精於您學術領域的期刊
  • 您希望發表論文的期刊

  • 透過期刊網站訂閱目錄提醒
    每期期刊出版時,會收到含有期刊目錄的電子郵件通知
  • 能經常找到相關文章的關鍵字
  • 您學科領域的專業術語(文字和片語)
利用Web of Secience、Scopus和Google Scholar等資料庫設定關鍵字提醒 當與關鍵字相吻合的論文新增至資料庫時,您會收到電子郵件通知
  • 您在論文中引用的文獻
  • 與您研究有高度相關的研究

透過期刊網站設定引用提醒

當任何新發表的論文引用這些文獻時,您會收到電子郵件通知

灰色文獻的主要來源

  • 會議文獻
  • 政府和組織報告
  • 商業、技術和統計報告
  • 尚未發表的臨床實驗
  • 工作報告
  • 碩博士論文
在檢索文獻時,只看期刊對嗎?

不完全正確!書籍是剛開始研究的一個很好的出發點,能提供您研究主題的概況(尤其是剛開始研究職涯的研究人員)。

另一個有價值的資訊是灰色文獻 。灰色文獻包含在一般搜尋引擎、資料庫和圖書館目錄中不易找到的資訊。搜尋灰色文獻可獲得與近期熱門研究主題相關的資訊。

會議文獻可提供跟您正在研究主題的最新發現和討論,或給您近期可能會發表的論文相關線索。未發表的臨床實驗將會通知您已完成的實驗及其結果。碩博士論文和工作報告可提醒您其他研究者進行的類似研究訊息。

重要提醒:在論文中引用灰色文獻時需要特別謹慎。必須確保所引用的研究科學品質可經得起審查。
Contributors
Tips for effective literature searching and keeping up with new publications

The volume of publication output has exploded. You cannot rule out the possibility that your research topic has already been addressed in a recently published paper.

Benefits of a good literature search

  • It will prevent you from duplicating work that has already been done.
  • By synthesizing information from previous studies, you will be able to provide a stronger background, justification, and discussion of your own study.
  • Relevant studies can provide valuable insights and tips to make your own study better, such as the best methodology or data analysis methods to use.
  • You will be able to find gaps and weaknesses in the existing research and thereby come up with useful and meaningful research questions.
  • You will become familiar with terminologies in your field by using and finding suitable keywords.
One of the most frequent reasons for rejection by journals is that the study is a duplication of work that*s already been published. It is important to keep up with published works in your field and use a structured search strategy to make sure you don*t overlook similar publications.


Basic search strategy for discovery of literature

Define your keywords

It is very important to use targeted keywords. Break up the topic you are researching into its main concepts, then define keywords for each concept. Next, expand the list by writing down synonyms and alternative phrasings for each keyword. Also, use terms that you plan to include in your own manuscript; this will indicate how relevant those terms are in the field or whether you should use more precise terms to define your concepts.
Checklist for defining keywords

  • What alternative vocabulary is used in discussion of my topic?
  • Are there American and British variants of spelling or vocabulary?
  • Can I identify a word-stem for truncation? E.g., child$ to find child, children, or childish.
  • Are common abbreviations, acronyms or formulae used?
  • What specific cases or examples am I interested in?
  • What more general terms might include my topic?
  • Are there categories I'd like to exclude?

Source: Planning a literature search. Leeds University Library.

Start your search

You might need to search several academic databases to make sure you*ve covered all bases. Since each database has unique sources for obtaining data and unique processes for deciding which journal articles to index, limiting your search to only one database may cause you to overlook relevant articles. For example, if you restrict your search to Elsevier*s Science Direct, you are very likely to miss relevant publications, since this database mostly indexes journals published by Elsevier.

Sources for searching

Bibliographic/general
databases
E.g., Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EMBASE, JSTOR, ProQuest Use to
  • Browse for popular and high quality articles
  • Start the discovery process and find an initial set of papers
Publisher databases and journal websites
E.g., Elsevier*s ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Wiley Online Library, Oxford Journals Use to
  • Browse through journals that frequently publish on your topics of interest
  • Browse through journals specific to your specialization
Subject-specific
databases
E.g., Medline, PsychINFO, MathSciNet, arxiv.org, Sociological Abstracts, EconLit, ERIC, INSPEC Use to
  • Look for articles in a specific discipline
  • Do in-depth research on a particular topic
  • Look for articles on obscure or niche topics


Follow the citations

Once you have identified some relevant journal articles, an easy way to find more studies is by looking through the reference lists of these articles (backward searching). The reference studies are likely to be quite relevant for you as well. In addition, look at the papers that have cited the articles since they were published (forward searching). This will help you find the newer studies that have built upon the work.

Keep a written record of your searches

Note down the names of journals that you come across often during your searches. Over time, you will get a good idea of which journals are most prominent in your field and which journals you should consider publishing in. In addition, keep a list of the keywords and keyword combinations that return the best results. This will not only reduce the time taken for future searches but also yield a list of terminologies that are common in your field.

Use a references manager

With the huge number of studies you will probably have to sift through and track, manual compilation of references is no longer an option. Use a reference manager like Endnote (purchase required) or Zotero (free). Reference managers allow you to download and save papers in your computer*s library directly from journal websites with just one button click. They also make it very easy to organize your library and compile reference lists. Although these programs may be difficult to use initially, skimming through their help manual or video tutorial along with a few days of learning through trial and error are all that*s required to become comfortable with them.

Keeping up with the literature

A large number of databases and publishers provide one or more of the following alerts features:Table-of-Contents (TOC) alerts, citation alerts, and keyword alerts. These alerts are very useful for keeping up with newly published papers and research topics. With many alert services, you receive alerts in the form of emails listing the title and authors of newly published papers, and sometimes even abstracts.

How to keep up with new publications through alerts
  • Journals that crop up regularly during searches
  • Journals specific to your specialization
  • Journals you would like to publish in

  • Sign up for TOC alerts through the journal websites
    Get an email including table of contents whenever a new issue of the journal is published
  • Keywords that often return relevant articles
  • Terms (words and phrases) unique to your specialization
Sign up for keyword alerts with databases like Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar Get an email whenever a paper matching your keyword is published or added to the database
  • Studies you have cited in your own papers
  • Individual studies highly relevant to your research

Sign up for citation alerts through journal websites

Get an email whenever a newly published paper cites one of these studies

Major sources of grey literature

  • Conference proceedings
  • Government and organizational reports
  • Commercial, technical, and statistical reports
  • Unpublished clinical trials
  • Working papers
  • Theses and dissertations
So, in a literature search, I should only look at journals, right?

Not quite! Books can be a useful starting point in your research. They can provide you a general overview of your topic (especially if you*re just beginning your research career). There*s also another valuable source of information〞grey literature . Grey literature consists of information that is not easily searchable through conventional search engines, databases, and library catalogues. Searches of grey literature searches can yield valuable information indicating current hot topics for research.

Conference proceedings can provide the latest findings and discussions on the topic you*re studying and give you clues on forthcoming papers that may be published. Unpublished clinical trials will inform you of trials already undertaken and their results. Theses, dissertations, and working papers can alert you to similar work being undertaken by other researchers. A note of caution: you do need to be extra careful when citing grey literature in your paper. Make sure that the scientific quality of the study you are citing can stand up to scrutiny.
Contributors