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2014 SSP 會議重點:CrossMark 學術論文版本監控服務

作者 Jeffrey Beall | 根據 2014 年 6 月在學術出版學會(Society for Scholarly Publishing,SSP)
會議中一項議程所撰寫

我們都對書籍出版上的『版本』概念很熟悉,一般來說,一本書的首次出版稱為第一版,有時寫為 1st edition / 1st ed。出版商通常會邀請作者更新已出版的書籍內容,然後發行下一版,並用不同的術語來命名之後的版本,有時會命名為第二版(2nd edition)、修訂版或更新版。

但學術論文該怎麼辦呢?目前並沒有既定的慣例來闡明學術論文的版本,主要是因為大多數學術論文只有一個版本。不過最近越來越多的學術論文有不同的版本,或者被完全刪除,因此有必要開始控制這些版本並讓讀者與電腦來區分彼此。

我參加了 2014 年 6 月在波士頓召開的 Society for Scholarly Publishing (SSP) 學術出版學會會議,由 NISO(National Information Standards Organization,美國國家信息標準組織)主席 Todd Carpenter 所主持的小組簡報中 Inera Inc.(專為出版商和相關行業提供服務的公司)的 CEO Bruce Rosenblum 介紹了名為 CrossMark 的新產品,該產品為學術出版內容提供『版本監控』,包括論文、章節、會議記錄和書籍。作品發表後可能因不同原因而有所修改,形成不同的版本,這些原因可能包括:

  • 取消:在發表前撤銷稿件
  • 撤稿:刪除已發表的論文
  • 更正
  • 勘誤
  • 其他更新

 

讀者們一般都會想讀最新的版本,這就是 CrossMark 的主要價值,使用該服務的文章發表商會在文章頁面上放置 CrossMark 標誌,讀者點擊後便會被引導去一個獨立頁面,顯示論文當前狀態。 例如,當讀者閱讀學術論文的 PDF 版本時,可在網頁上看到 CrossMark的標誌,當讀者的網路是連線的狀態時,點擊此標誌即能跳轉到 CrossMark 的服務頁面,瀏覽器會告知『本文件是最新版』或『本文有更新版本』等訊息。

CrossMark 不包括在正式發表前所創建的版本,因此作者有時候儲存在資料庫中的 word 檔,一般稱為預印本和後印本,並不會列入其中。

CrossMark 的授權公司 CrossRef 也正在對出版商描述發表文章更正時所使用的不同用語進行標準化,比如提供各種修正類別下推薦使用的用語,並為每個術語提供標準定義。如此一來,所有用戶就能在敘述同樣的修正時,統一使用相同的術語。CrossRef 也是為學術文章分配 DOIs(digital object identifiers,數位物件識別號)的組織。 CrossMark 服務如同 DOIs 會提供給決定使用它的出版商們。

CrossMark 網址: http://www.crossref.org/crossmark/index.html
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New CrossMark service alerts readers to changes in published scholarly works: Highlights from a session at SSP 2014

This post, written by guest contributor Jeffrey Beall, is based on a session at the Society for Scholarly Publishing (SSP) meeting, June, 2014.

We are all familiar with the concept of "edition" in published books. Generally, when a book is first published it is called the first edition, sometimes written as 1st ed. Frequently, a publisher invites an author to update a published book and publishes a later edition. Publishers use different terms to name later editions. Sometimes these are called second (or 2nd) edition, revised edition, or updated edition.

But what about scholarly articles? There is no established convention of assigning edition statements to scholarly articles, chiefly because most scholarly articles have a single edition. Increasingly, however, scholarly articles have different versions or are removed completely, and there is a need to control these versions so readers and computers can tell them apart.

I attended the Society for Scholarly Publishing meeting held in Boston in June, 2014, and observed a panel presentation moderated by Todd Carpenter, the head of NISO that stands for the (United States) National Information Standards Organization. One of the panelists was Bruce Rosenblum, the CEO of Inera, Inc., a company that provides services to publishers and related companies.

Mr. Rosenblum described CrossMark, a new product that will provide "version control" for published scholarly content, including articles, book chapters, conference proceedings, and even books. Once a work is published, it can be changed for several different reasons, creating different versions of the work. These include:

  • Withdrawals (the removal of an article when it is in press but before it is published)
  • Retractions (the removal of a published article)
  • Corrections
  • Errata
  • Other updates

Readers generally want to be sure they are reading the latest version of a scholarly work, and that is CrossMark's chief value. The articles of publishers using the service will have a clickable logo that will lead the user to a page that gives the article's current status.

For example, a reader may be reading a PDF version of a scholarly article and see the CrossMark logo on the page. If the reader is connected to the internet, he can click on the logo and be directed to the CrossMark service. The server will then respond with a message such as "This document is current," or "Updates are available for this document."

CrossMark will not cover versions of the articles that are created before they are formally published. Therefore, so-called preprints and postprints, generally Word documents that authors occasionally deposit in open-access repositories, will be excluded from the service.

CrossRef, the company that licenses CrossMark, is also working on developing a standard terminology for the different terms publishers use to describe corrections to published works. For example, the terminology will list preferred terms for each type of correction and will establish standardized definitions for each term. This way, all publishers using the service will use the same term to describe the same type of correction, enabling the benefit of standardization.

CrossRef is the same organization that assigns DOIs (digital object identifiers) to scholarly articles. Like DOIs, CrossMark will be a service available to publishers that decide to implement it.

The URL for CrossMark is: http://www.crossref.org/crossmark/index.html.

TAGS: 
attending conferences, academic conference, author tools

 


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